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Attitude of Ukrainians to public holidays, February and April 2021

The press release was prepared by KIIS Director General Volodymyr Paniotto


During February 5-7 and April 16-22, 2021, the Kyiv International Institute of Sociology (KIIS) conducted its own regular all-Ukrainian public opinion poll "Omnibus". By the method of computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) based on a random sample of mobile telephone numbers in February 2005 respondents and in April 2003 respondents were interviewed living in all regions of Ukraine (except the Autonomous Republic of Crimea). The sample is representative for the adult population (18 years and older) of Ukraine. The sample does not include territories that are temporarily not controlled by the authorities of Ukraine - the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, certain districts of Donetsk and Luhansk regions.

The statistical error of the sample (with a probability of 0.95 and design effect of 1.5) does not exceed: 3.3% for indicators close to 50%, 2.8% - for indicators close to 25%, 2.0% - for indicators close to 10%, 1.4% - for indicators close to 5%.

 

Methodological remark

The question of which holidays are most important or favorite depends on the date of the survey. The closer to this holiday - the more often it is mentioned by respondents. Therefore, to study the dynamics, we usually ask about the holidays every year in February. We also conducted a survey in February this year, but because of Covid, not through a face-to-face interview, but through a telephone survey. A 2020 research found that there are 10% more people with higher education in a telephone survey than in a face-to-face survey, but we do not know which data are more accurate, because the census in Ukraine has not been conducted for 20 years. In addition, in a face-to-face interview, respondents look at a card with a list and choose more alternatives. The results of February 2021 were significantly different from last year, so we repeated this survey in April. Thus, we have the opportunity to determine how stable the preferences of Ukrainians are, how they depend on the date of the survey and the method of the survey. Comparisons of February and April 2021 by the same method provide information on the impact of the date, and a comparison of February 2020 and February 2021 shows the total impact of the dynamics of public opinion and the impact of the survey method.

 

Main results. 

  • The survey method affects the percentage of those who choose certain holidays as the most important or favorite, but the hierarchy does not change. As the date of the holiday approaches, its assessment as important or favorite increases.
  • The most popular religious holidays in Ukraine are Christmas and Easter (66% and 65% respectively), followed by the New Year (58%). The least popular are Labor Day (9%) and Constitution Day of Ukraine (9%)
  • Over the last 10 years, the hierarchy of holidays has not changed radically. The three most popular holidays of Ukrainians are Christmas, Easter and New Year (70-80%), followed by International Women's Day and Victory Day (30-40%). Attitudes towards Ukraine's Independence Day have improved (from 15% to 31% in February). Then the Trinity and the Day of the Defender of Ukraine (20-30%), on the Day of the Defender of Ukraine there is a slight positive trend, the least popular holidays - Labor Day and Constitution Day (9-12%). There is a certain decrease in the attitude to the Victory Day, 10 years ago it was a favorite holiday for 50% of Ukrainians.  
  • In April 2021, a relative majority of Ukrainians, 41% (39% a year ago) supported the celebration of both dates in Ukraine: Remembrance and Reconciliation Day - May 8 and Victory Day - May 9. According to 31% (there were 32%) of citizens, it is worth celebrating only Victory Day on May 9, 9% (there were 14%) believe that it is worth celebrating only the Day of Remembrance and Reconciliation on May 8, and for another 10% (there were 9%) this issue is indifferent (data from the “Ilko Kucheriv Democratic Initiatives” Foundation and the Razumkov Center are also used here, see the link in the text of the press release)

 

*   *   *

 

Because we typically measure attitudes toward holidays in February — some time away from the May holidays — the data below are mostly for February 2021 (more recent April data is used for comparison only).

Research has shown that Ukrainians generally treat holidays with love and respect; only 2% of respondents do not consider any official holidays as important or favorite.

The most popular official holidays of Ukrainians in February were such holidays (table 1) :

 

Table 1. Which of these holidays are most important or favorite for you? Please specify no more than 5 holidays, %

 

  February, 2021
Christmas 66
Easter 65
New Year 58
International Women's Day 33
Independence Day of Ukraine 31
Day of the Defender of Ukraine 21
Victory Day 18
Trinity 18
Constitution Day of Ukraine 9
Labor Day 9

 

 

As we can see, in April 2021 the most popular religious holidays in Ukraine are Easter and Christmas (72% and 63% respectively), the least popular are Labor Day (12%) and Constitution Day of Ukraine. (14%).

Graph 1 shows what has changed in two months. 

Graph 1. Which of these holidays are most important or favorite for you?,%

                  Comparison of February and April 2021 (impact of survey date)

Such changes are significant. The mention of Easter has increased (and this is undoubtedly due to the fact that the survey was conducted 2 weeks before the holiday), the mention of Victory Day has increased for the same reason, i.e. due to the approach of the holiday. During this time, the mention of the Independence Day of Ukraine (from 31% to 37%) and the Day of the Defender of Ukraine (from 21% to 29%) also increased significantly. This may be due to the fact that tensions with Russia increased in April due to the concentration of Russian troops on the border with Ukraine.

 

Graph 2 shows the dynamics of the popularity of the holidays for the year - from February 2020 to February 2021. 

Graph 2. Which of these holidays are most important or favorite for you?,%

Comparison of February 2020 F2F and February 2021 CATI (impact of survey method) 

As we can see, the attitude to religious holidays, the International Women's Day and Victory Day has significantly worsened, the attitude to the Independence Day of Ukraine and the Day of the Defender of Ukraine has improved only. It is possible that the attitude to religious holidays is related to the method of the survey, because in the telephone survey there are more people with higher education who are less religious. Unfortunately, due to the change in the survey method, we cannot be sure of the short-term dynamics of these processes. Let’s see the dynamics of the last 10 years (see table 2)

 

Table 2. Which of these holidays are most important or favorite for you

Dynamics in Ukraine as a whole from 2011 to 2021, % 

  2011 2013 2016 2017 2018 2020 February, 2021 April, 2021
Christmas 77 81 74 76 79 74 58 55
International Women's Day 78 79 79 80 81 79 66 63
Labor Day 37 49 37 49 45 40 33 34
Easter 10 10 7 12 9 11 9 12
Victory Day 83 83 81 80 82 77 65 72
Trinity 50 40 35 37 31 33 18 30
Constitution Day of Ukraine 36 36 34 29 35 31 18 17
Independence Day of Ukraine 4 4 5 5 5 7 9 14
Day of the Defender of Ukraine 15 12 20 17 16 19 31 37
Christmas Was not Was not Was not 10 11 13 21 29
NO ONE OF THESE HOLIDAYS 
IS IMPORTANT OR FAVORITE TO ME
2 2 2 2 3 2 2 1
DIFFICULT TO SAY 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1
REFUSAL TO ANSWER - - - - - - 0 0

 

The three most popular holidays of Ukrainians are Christmas, Easter and New Year (70-80%), followed by International Women's Day and Victory Day (30-40%). The attitude to the Independence Day of Ukraine has improved (from 15% to 31% in February). Then the Trinity and the Day of the Defender of Ukraine (20-30%), on the Day of the Defender of Ukraine there is a small positive dynamics, the least popular holidays - Labor Day and Constitution Day (9-12%).

There is a certain decrease in the attitude to the Victory Day, 10 years ago it was a favorite holiday for 50% of Ukrainians.  

Remembrance and Reconciliation Day - May 8, or Victory Day - May 9

When to celebrate this holiday - May 8 or 9 - this year, we did not poll, but conducted such a poll in April 2020 with the “Democratic Initiatives” Foundation.

https://kiis.com.ua/?lang=ukr&cat=news&id=941)

In April 2021, the “Democratic Initiatives” Foundation and the Razumkov Center repeated this survey  (https://dif.org.ua/article/den-peremogi-i-yogo-mistse-v-istorichniy-pamyati-ukraintsiv-yakiy-sens-gromadyani-vkladayut-u-tsyu-datu)   

A relative majority of 41% (39% was a year ago) of Ukrainians support celebrations in Ukraine on both dates: Remembrance and Reconciliation Day on May 8 and Victory Day on May 9. According to 31% (there were 32%) of citizens, it is worth celebrating only Victory Day on May 9, 9% (there were 14%) believe that it is worth celebrating only the Day of Remembrance and Reconciliation on May 8, and for another 10% (there were 9%) this question is indifferent.

 

 

 

Annex 1. Formulation of questions from the questionnaire

S0. On this card is a list of National Holidays of Ukraine, arranged according to the calendar. Which of these holidays are most important or favorite for you? Please specify no more than 5 holidays.

 

New Year 1
Christmas 2
International Women's Day 3
Easter 4
Labor Day 5
Victory Day 6
Trinity 7
Constitution Day of Ukraine 8
Independence Day of Ukraine 9
Day of the Defender of Ukraine 10
NO ONE OF THESE HOLIDAYS IS
IMPORTANT OR FAVORITE TO ME
11
DIFFICULT TO SAY 12
REFUSAL TO ANSWER 13

 

Tables

 

Table 1By gender, February 2021, %

  men women
New Year 58,6 58,5
Christmas 61 70,1
International Women's Day 23,7 40,9
Easter 10,7 7,6
Labor Day 57 71,8
Victory Day 18 17,3
Trinity 15,4 20
Constitution Day of Ukraine 10,1 9
Independence Day of Ukraine 33 28,9
Day of the Defender of Ukraine 25,2 16,8
NO ONE OF THESE HOLIDAYS IS
IMPORTANT OR FAVORITE TO ME
2,9 1,8
DIFFICULT TO SAY 2,2 0,8
REFUSAL TO ANSWER 0,1 0,1

 

 

Table 2. By level of education, February 2021, %:

  primary
education
complete secondary
education
secondary special
education
higher
education
New Year 36,3 54,9 61,1 57,6
Christmas 64,4 58,9 68,5 64,6
International Women's Day 27,6 35 38,5 29,8
Easter 5,7 9,8 11,9 7,3
Labor Day 74,5 67,8 63,6 63,5
Victory Day 20,4 16,5 18,3 14,4
Trinity 38,8 22,8 14,5 16,3
Constitution Day of Ukraine 7,4 5 5,7 16,1
Independence Day of Ukraine 19,4 20,4 22,1 40,1
Day of the Defender of Ukraine 2,4 16,8 23,8 23
NO ONE OF THESE HOLIDAYS IS
IMPORTANT OR FAVORITE TO ME
2,4 5,4 1,1 2,5
DIFFICULT TO SAY 3,8 0,7 3,5 1,5
REFUSAL TO ANSWER 0 0 0 0

 

 

Table 3. By regions, February 2021, %: 

  Western Central Southern Eastern
New Year 42,9 56 71,3 71,9
Christmas 84 60,2 61 54,9
International Women's Day 20 34 40,2 43,2
Easter 3,5 7,3 13,5 15,1
Labor Day 79,3 63,7 58,6 53,3
Victory Day 6,2 13,1 27,2 26,3
Trinity 25,2 14,4 16 15,8
Constitution Day of Ukraine 11,6 10,3 8,1 6,3
Independence Day of Ukraine 41 32,9 22,6 20,4
Day of the Defender of Ukraine 24,2 24 15,5 14,7
NO ONE OF THESE HOLIDAYS IS
IMPORTANT OR FAVORITE TO ME
2,6 2,6 1,6 1,8
DIFFICULT TO SAY 0,4 1,3 1,6 3,8
REFUSAL TO ANSWER 0 0 0,2 0,4

 

Table 4. By age, February 2021, %

  18-39 40-59 60-70+
New Year 67,6 57,7 52,5
Christmas 68,2 69,4 64,9
International Women's Day 37,9 34,0 33,6
Easter 10,1 9,6 12,0
Labor Day 64,4 67,7 68,9
Victory Day 13,1 16,5 27,9
Trinity 13,0 21,6 18,9
Constitution Day of Ukraine 17,3 7,8 4,3
Independence Day of Ukraine 28,5 31,2 20,2
Day of the Defender of Ukraine 24,5 23,5 16,8
NO ONE OF THESE HOLIDAYS IS
IMPORTANT OR FAVORITE TO ME
2,3 4,0 1,9
DIFFICULT TO SAY 1,9 1,1 1,8
REFUSAL TO ANSWER 0,1 0,0 0,0

 

 


8.5.2021
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