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Are there issues of discrimination in Ukraine?

Press release by Stanislav Zlenko

About the half of the population think that there is no discrimination in Ukraine. Depending on the kind of discrimination, 23-32% of the population think that there is almost no discrimination, 5-10% - that discrimination of these kinds slightly appears. Only 8.8% of the population experienced discrimination over the past year.

 

In September, 2015 Kyiv International Institute of Sociology (KIIS) on the client`s request conducted all-Ukrainian poll about discrimination in Ukraine. Survey was conducted with computer assisted personal interviews (CATI). Sample is stochastic and two-staged with quota selection on the last stage, 1998 respondents living in all regions of Ukraine (except the AR of Crimea) were polled. The sample is representative for the population of Ukraine aged 18 and above.

In Luhansk and Donetsk regions survey was conducted both on territories that are and on territories that are not controlled by Ukraine. Total amount of respondents polled in Donbas is 231.

Statistical sample error (with probability 0.95, without design-effect and possible limitations caused by the usage of stationary phones) does not exceed 2.2%.

During the study respondents were asked the following questions: “For each kind of discrimination that I will name tell please how common or not common are they in your city/village?”, and “Have you ever felt yourself discriminated by at least one of the following characteristics: ethnic group, region of origin, language, sex, age, religious views, disability, etc.?”.

Three most common kinds of discrimination, in respondents` opinion, are discrimination by age (11%), by sexual orientation (10%), and by disability (7%). The least common kind is discrimination by sex (3%). Discrimination by disability is common mostly in regional centers. Major group of people who mention this kind consists of low-income and poor people.

  • The most common kind of discrimination, in respondents` opinion, is the one by age. It was named mostly by people of the age group 45-59 and people elder than 60 years – 14% in both groups state that this kind of discrimination is common in all settlements.

 

  • Discrimination by sexual orientation was named mostly by the youth17% of respondents aged 29 and below state that this kind of discrimination is common all over Ukraine. Discrimination by sexual orientation is more evident in big cities.


  

   As to the perception of discrimination in different socio-demographic groups:

  • Respondents with secondary education feel more discrimination by age (15%) than do people with specialty (11%) or with higher education (10%). Respondents with higher education state that discrimination by sexual orientation is more widespread (12%) than do people with secondary (5%) or special (10%) education.
  • As to discrimination by the quality of life, the most suffering group are poor people. They mention discrimination by age on the first place (21%), then goes discrimination by disability (15%). Amongst the members of this group, 17% had an experience of being discriminated over the past year.
  • Respondents with low income-level mention discrimination by age (12%) as the common one.
  • Respondents with moderate and high income-levels put more accent on the problem of discrimination by sexual orientation – 14% of respondents with moderate income-level, 18% of respondents with high income-level. It is to be mentioned, that only 7% of respondents with moderate income-level and 4% of those with high income-level had personal experience of being discriminated over the past year.
  • As to discrimination of socio-cultural groups in the context of employment, the most discriminated groups were entrepreneurs and unemployed – 12%. Entrepreneurs highlighted the discrimination by sexual orientation – 17%. People who take care about households mark discriminations by age (13%) and by disability (10%) as common ones.
  • Retirees find discriminations by age (15%) and by disability (10%) to be the most evident, 10% of them felt themselves discriminated over the past year. Students named only one discrimination – be sexual orientation, 5% of students felt themselves discriminated over the past year. Unemployed people put accent on discriminations by sexual orientation (24%), by age (12%), and by nationality (12%).
  • Discriminations by age and by sexual orientation are more common for regional centers and big cities.
  • In Eastern region 11% of respondents felt themselves discriminated over the past year. Mostly it was because of age (13%), and sexual orientation (11%). Discrimination by age was evident for 12% of respondents from Southern region, for 11% respondents from Central region, and for 8% in Western region. In Eastern region 7% of respondents state there was a discrimination by the region of origin.
  • 8% of men and 9% of women felt themselves discriminated. Amongst men 12% mentioned discrimination by sexual orientation, 9% - discrimination by age. Amongst women 13% mentioned discrimination by age, 8% - discrimination by sexual orientation, and by disability.
  • Situation is different in Donbas. Kinds of discrimination that have significant differences are discrimination by region of origin (13%) – this percentage is three times bigger there than in other regions of Ukraine (4%), discrimination by language (10%) – this percentage is two times bigger there than in other regions (5%), and discrimination by nationality (9%) – this percentage is almost two times bigger there than in other regions (5%).
  • There were no significant differences in the indicators of discrimination between territories that are and territories that are not controlled by Ukraine.





  •  

    Respondents` personal experience of being discriminated

     

    Overall, 9% of respondents experienced prejudiced attitude toward themselves over the past year

    • People with poor quality of life suffered from the prejudiced attitude the most – 17% of them experienced discrimination.

    • Entrepreneurs and those looking for a job experienced prejudiced attitude to a lesser extent – 12% representatives in both groups.

    • 11% of the population of the East of Ukraine experienced prejudice towards themselves over the past year.

    • 10% of respondents aged 45-49, and 10% aged 60 and above experienced prejudice towards themselves over the past year.


     

    Addition 1.

    Formulation of questions from the questionnaire.

     

    And now I would like to ask you a few questions about discrimination. By discrimination I mean the prejudiced attitude toward person because of her/his personal characteristics like age, sex, or belonging to social minority.

     

    1. For each kind of discrimination that I will name tell please how common or not common are they in your city/village?

     

    Discrimination by…

      Very common Quite common Not very common Almost not happens NO DISCRIMINATION DO NOT KNOW/ DIFFICULT TO SAY DENYAL
    a)   Nationality 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
    b)   Region of origin 1 2 3 4 5 6 6
    c)   Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 6
    d)   Education              
    e)   Sex 1 2 3 4 5 6 6
    f)    Sexual orientation (gays, lesbians) 1 2 3 4 5 6 6
    g)   Age 1 2 3 4 5 6 6
    h)   Religion or beliefs 1 2 3 4 5 6 6
    i)    Disability 1 2 3 4 5 6 6

     

    2. Haveyoueverfeltyourselfdiscriminatedover the past 12 months byatleastoneofthefollowingcharacteristics: ethnicgroup, regionoforigin, language, sex, age, religiousviews, disability, etc.?

    1 – Yes.

    2 – No.

    7 – Do not know/Difficult to say.

    9. Denyal.


    Tables

     

    Table 1.1 Discrimination on the territory of Ukraine, % - 1998 people surveyed.

    For each kind of discrimination that I will name tell please how common or not common are they in your city/village?

      Very common Quite common Not very common Almost not happens NO DISCRIMINATION DO NOT KNOW/ DIFFICULT TO SAY TOTAL
    Age 2.3 8.8 8.2 30.6 47.9 2.3 100
    Sexual orientation (gays, lesbians) 1.8 8 9.9 24.2 42.7 13.5 100
    Disability 1 6.4 10.4 26.5 52.5 3.4 100
    Nationality 0.9 4.6 9.3 31.3 51.9 2.1 100
    Region of origin 0.8 4.5 9.8 31.8 50.6 2.6 100
    Language 0.8 4.3 9.2 30.6 53.7 1.7 100
    Education 0.9 2.5 6.2 31.7 56.2 2.8 100
    Religion or beliefs 0.7 3 7.8 31 54.7 3 100
    Sex 0.5 1.8 4.9 33.1 57 2.7 100

     

    Discrimination on the territory of Donbas

    For each kind of discrimination that I will name tell please how common or not common are they in your city/village?

    Table 1.2 Discrimination on the territory of Donbas, % - 231 people surveyed.

      Very common Quite common Not very common Almost not happens NO DISCRIMINATION DO NOT KNOW/ DIFFICULT TO SAY TOTAL
    Sexual orientation (gays, lesbians) 4.3 8.2  7.4  29.9  36.4 13.9 100
    Age 2.2 9.1 5.2 40.3 41.6 1.7 100
    Region of origin 1.3 11.3 15.6 34.2 38.5 1.7 100
    Language 1.7 4.5 18 33.3 40.5 1.8 100
    Nationality 1.8 4.5 14.4 36 42.3 0.9 100
    Disability 1.7 4.8 10.4 34.2 47.2 1.7 100
    Religion or beliefs 1.3 1.3 7.4 40.7 46.8 2.6 100
    Education 1.7 0.9 5.2 40.3 50.2 1.8 100
    Sex 0.4 1.3 3.5 41.6 51.5 1.8 100

     

    Table 1.3 Personal experience of being discriminated

    Haveyoueverfeltyourselfdiscriminatedover the past 12 months byatleastoneofthefollowingcharacteristics: ethnicgroup, regionoforigin, language, sex, age, religiousviews, disability, etc.?

      Ukraine in general, %
    Yes 8.8
    No 90.6
    Do not know 0.5
    Denyal 0.2
    TOTAL 100

    For the commentaries please contact Stanislav Zlenko: S.Zlenko@kiis.com.ua

     


10.2.2016
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