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Perception of own well-being of the residents of Ukraine in May 2018:

Press release prepared by the general director of KIIS, professor V.I. Paniotto,  materials  by Darya Pirogova were also used.

The assessment of the social welfare by the population of Ukraine is negative, the index is -46 (its value may vary from -100 to +100). Compared to 2017, this estimate has slightly increased. Ukrainians are, on average, much more satisfied with their own lives than with the life of the country (the index is higher by 52 points); over the past three years, the index of individual well-being has increased from -8 to +6 and now corresponds to the pre-war level of 2013.

On May 18-30, 2018, Kyiv International Institute of Sociology (KIIS) conducted an all-Ukrainian public opinion poll. Data were collected from 2025 respondents living in 108 settlements in all oblasts of Ukraine (except for the AR of Crimea) with the method of personal interviewing. The sample was stochastic, and it is representative of the population of Ukraine aged 18 and above.

In Luhansk and Donetsk oblasts survey was conducted only in the territories that are controlled by the Ukrainian government.

The statistical sampling error (with a probability of 0.95 and for a design effect of 1.5) does not exceed:

3.3% — for indexes close to 50%,

2.8% — for indexes close to 25%,

2.0% — for indexes close to 10%,

1.4% — for indexes close to 5%.

 

For the evaluation and monitoring of public and individual well-being KIIS has created two indices: the Index of the perception of public well-being (IPW) and the Index of the perception of individual well-being (IIW) for the six years already. Values of indices may range from -100 to 100 points, where -100 stands for the lowest assessment of the situation and dissatisfaction, and 100 - for the highest assessment and overall satisfaction with the situation in the country or in the personal life. A detailed description of the methodology of index calculations can be found in the Addition. But the idea behind the indexes is that they combine several key indicators that characterize the population's assessment of the situation in the country (the index of public well-being) and the assessment of their own situation (the index of individual well-being). The first index integrates an overall assessment of the situation in the country (whether we are moving in the right direction), an assessment of the economic situation and the prospects for development, and the second index integrates an assessment of the own health, happiness, well-being, and prospects for changing the level of well-being of the family.

In May 2018, the average IPW value was -46, while the individual well-being was rated significantly higher at the level of 6 points. Such a large difference in the indicators shows that, despite all the troubles, the Ukrainians, on average, are much more satisfied with their own lives than with the life of the country.

Nevertheless, there is a correlation relationship between these indices, the strength of which is slightly decreasing: in May 2016, the coefficient describing the tightness of the relation r was r = 0.48, in December 2016 r = 0.40, in May 2017 r = 0.42, in May 2018 r = 0.34; the maximum possible value of this coefficient is equal to 1. That is, the assessment of the situation in the country less affects the assessment of personal well-being and vice versa.

The index of the public well-being in the postwar period remains at the level from -46 to -53 and now remains lower by 6-7 points than before the war. The index of individual well-being increased from -8 to +6, which corresponds to the pre-war level of 2013. See graph 1.


Graph 1. Dynamics of IPW and IIW indices in Ukraine in 2012-2018.


 

The increase in the index of individual well-being occurred mainly due to an increase in optimism about family life in the future and an increase in the sense of happiness (see table1).

Table 1.  Dynamics of indices of public andindividual well-being in Ukraine in 2012-2018

  February2012 November 2013 February2014 May 2016 December 2016 May 2017 May2018
State of Ukraine`s economy -47 -48 -53 -68 -63 -64 -55
Direction of Ukraine`s development -63 -55 -51 -57 -66 -59 -66
Expectations about the life in the country -15 -14 -14             -32 -22 -25 -20
 Index of public well-being (IPW) -41 -39 -40             -53 -51 -50  -46
Financial well-being of the family -33 -25 -23 -42 -43 -42 -34
Expectations about the life of the family -5 0 1              -24 -6 -10                6
Health 14 11 16 10 11 10 11
Personal happiness 28 31 34 26 26 26 39
Index of individual well-being 1 5 8 -8 -3 -4 6

What characteristics do affect the personal well-being of the Ukrainians?

Age

The higher is the age, the lower is the level of well-being (Index of individual well-being decrease with the increase of the age, see graph 2), while the perception of the public well-being almost does not change with the age (except for the youth younger than 30 who are more optimistic than other age groups).

Graph 2. IPW and IIW indices for different age groups.

SexMen evaluate the situation in Ukraine somewhat higher than women do, and their individual well-being is significantly higher (see Table 2). This may be due to the fact that women live longer, while the personal well-being gets worse with the age.

Table 2. Personal well-being of men and women

Sex Index of public well-being Index of individual well-being
male -43 11
female -48 1

 

Education

The higher is the level of education, the higher is the level of individual well-being (see graph 3). Most likely, this is due to the fact that the higher is the education, the higher is the level of income. The index of the perception of public well-being (IPW) is practically not affected by education.

Graph 3. IPW and IIW indices for groups of different level of education.

Type of settlement.

Type of settlement (see table 3) does not affect much the perception of public well-being and has a very slight effect on the individual well-being. The IIW of urban citizens is +8, and of rural is +2 (since the index changes from -100 to 100, the 6 points difference is not big).

 

Table3. Personal well-being of urban and rural citizens

Urban and rural population Index of public well-being Index of individual well-being
Urban population -46 8
Rural population -45 2

 

Region.

As to the index of the perception of social well-being, it is relatively the highest in the Western region (although it is negative there, equals -38), see. Table 4. But in other regions it is even worse: in the Central region it is -46, it is about the same in the Eastern region (-44), it is the lowest in the Southern region (-55). Thus, one can say that the region of residence has a certain impact on the assessment of social well-being (the difference between the West and the South regions is 17 points).

As to the individual well-being, it is somewhat higher in the West, and in the Center (11 and 8 points, respectively) and somewhat lower in the South, and the East (-1).


Table4. Well being of the residents of different regions

   Macroregions Index of public well-being Index of individual well-being
Western -38 11
Central -46 8
Southern -55 -1
Eastern -44 -1

Commentary.

The index of individual well-being increases, and, in fact, has reached the pre-war level. It depends, first of all, on age (the higher is the age, the lower is the level of well-being) and education (the higher the education - the higher the level of well-being). The index of the perception of the public well-being fluctuates and remains below the pre-war level (although there is an increase in 2018, compared with 2017). Gender, age, education, type of settlement practically does not affect the perception of public well-being. Basically, the real state of public welfare is characterized by the index of individual well-being, and the index of public well-being characterizes how the population evaluates the state of public well-being, and this assessment depends not only (and perhaps not so much) on real well-being, but on the coverage of the situation in the media . The big difference between the average index of individual well-being and the index of perceptions of social welfare shows that the real situation in the country is significantly better than the perception of this situation by the population and that this is most likely due to a largely negative balance of coverage of the situation in Ukraine in the media.


Addition 1. The methodology of index construction

For the index construction, we ask 7 questions: 4 of the questions are derived from the list of those that are used for the construction of Index of social attitudes calculated by Levada-Center, other 3 questions are standard for KIIS Omnibus questionnaire. These 7 questions are divided into 2 indexes based on the results of the factor analysis. Hereby you can find a list of questions.

Index of the perception of public well-being (IPW):

• In your opinion, are matters in Ukraine going in the right or in the wrong direction?

• How would you characterize the state of Ukrainian economics?

• Talking about Ukraine in general, in your opinion, will the life here become better or worse in a year than now?

Index of individual well-being (IIW):

• Do you think you are a happy person?

• How would you characterize the state of your health?

• In your opinion, will your family live better or worse than now in a year?

• Take a look at the card please, which one of the statements characterizes the financial well-being of your family the most precisely?

Values of indices may range from -100 to 100 points, where -100 stands for the lowest assessment of the situation and dissatisfaction, and 100 - for the highest assessment and overall satisfaction with the situation in the country or in the personal life.

 

Addition 2. The questionnaire, and the coding of alternatives:

 

Inyouropinion, domattersinUkrainego in the right or in the wrong direction? ONE ANSWER

In the right direction 100
In the wrong direction -100
Difficult to say 0

How would you evaluate the economic situation in Ukraine? ONE ANSWER

Very good 100
Good 50
Satisfactory 0
Bad -50
Very bad -100

 

Talking  about Ukraine in general, what do you think, will the life in Ukraine become better or worse in a year? ONE ANSWER

Much better 100
Little better 50
Remain the same 0
Little worse -50
Much worse -100

 

Do you consider yourself a happy person? ONE ANSWER

Yes 100
Rather yes, than no 50
Yes and no 0
Rather no, than yes -50
No -100

 

What do you think, will your family live better or worse than now in one year? ONE ANSWER

Much better 100
Little better 50
Remain the same 0
Little worse -50
Much worse - 100

 

How would you evaluate your health? ONE ANSWER

Very good 100
Good 50
Mediocre (neither good nor bad) 0
Bad –50
Very bad –100

 

Which statements do correspond to the financial well-being of your family the best?

We can afford to buy everything we want 100
We can afford to buy some expensive things 50
We have enough money for food, clothes, and we can save some 0
We have enough money for food but buying clothes is troublesome – 50
We do not have enough money even for food – 100

 

Addition 3. Tables

In your opinion, does the government of Ukraine lead the country in the right or in the wrong direction?

  %
In the right direction  14.0
In the wrong direction  68.5
DIFFICULT TO SAY  17.2
DENIAL FROM ANSWERING 0,3
Total  100.0

 

 How would you evaluate the economic situation in Ukraine?

  %
Very good 0,3
Good  1.4
Satisfactory  14.3
Bad  42.2
Very bad  38.2
DIFFICULT TO SAY  3.6
Total 0,1

 

Talking about Ukraine in general, what do you think, will the life in Ukraine become better or worse than now in a year?

  %  
Much better  1.1  
Little better  13.8 Better   14.9
Remain the same  30.2  30.2
Little worse  24.6 Worse     37.1
Much worse  12.5  
DIFFICULT TO SAY  17.8  
Total 0,1  

 What do you think, will your family live better or worse than now in one year?

  %
Much better  4.4
Little better  23.1
Remain the same  33.5
Little worse  12.7
Much worse  5.2
DIFFICULT TO SAY  21.1
Total 0,1

 

Do you consider yourself a happy person?

  %  
Yes  37.1  
Rather yes than no  25.6 Yes  62.8
Both yes and no  16.2  16.2
Rather no than yes  7.8 No   16.7
No  8.9  
DIFFICULT TO SAY  3.8  
DENIAL FROM ANSWERING 0,5  
Total  100.0  

 

How would you evaluate your health?

  %  
Very good  6.7  
Good  30.3 Good   37.1
Mediocre (neither good nor bad)  42.5 Mediocre  42.5
Bad  14.8 Bad   18.7
Very bad  3.9  
DIFFICULT TO SAY  1.7  
DENIAL FROM ANSWERING 0,1  
Total  100.0  

Take a look at the card, please,which statement does correspond to the financial well-being of your family the best?

  %
We can afford to buy everything we want  13.7
We can afford to buy some expensive things  44.6
We have enough money for food, clothes, and we can save some  30.0
We have enough money for food but buying clothes is troublesome  6.5
We do not have enough money even for food 0,7
DIFFICULT TO SAY / DO NOT KNOW  1.6
Total  3.1

 

 


13.7.2018
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