ESC or click to close
Press releases and reports
Attitude of the population of Ukraine to Russia and the population of Russia to Ukraine, February 2021
The press release contains the results of a joint project of the Kyiv International Institute of Sociology and the Russian non-governmental research organization “Levada-Center”, which has been carried out since 2008. (The autonomous non-profit organization "Levada-Center" is forcibly entered in the register of non-profit organizations of Russia, performing the functions of a foreign agent.The statement of the director of the "Levada-Center", who does not agree with this decision, see.here. )
Kyiv International Institute of Sociology (KIIS) During February 5-7, 2021, the Kyiv International Institute of Sociology (KIIS) conducted its own all-Ukrainian public opinion poll "Omnibus". By the method of computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) based on a random sample of mobile telephone numbers 2005 respondents were interviewed living in all regions of Ukraine (except the Autonomous Republic of Crimea). The sample is representative for the adult population (18 years and older) of Ukraine. The sample does not include territories that are temporarily not controlled by the authorities of Ukraine - the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, certain districts of Donetsk and Luhansk regions.
In Luhansk and Donetsk regions, the survey was conducted only in the territory controlled by the Ukrainian authorities.
Statistical sampling error (with a probability of 0.95 and taking into account the design effect of 1.1) does not exceed: 2.4% for indicators close to 50%, 2.1% for indicators close to 25%, 1.5% - for indicators close to 10%, 1.1% - for indicators close to 5%.
"Levada-Center" conducted a survey by a representative sample of the population of Russia, 1601 people aged 18 years and older, in the period 18-24 February 2021 by the method of personal interview.
The statistical error when the samplingis 1601 people (with a probability of 0.95) does not exceed: 3.4% for indicators close to 50%, 2.9% - for indicators close to 25% / 75%, 2.0% - for indicators close to 10% / 90%, and 1.5% - for indicators close to 5% / 95%
In Ukraine in February 2021, 41% of Ukrainians treated Russia well, and about the same number treated badly - 42%. Compared to September 2020, the situation has not changed.
In Russia, 54% of the population treated Ukraine well and 31% badly. Compared to the previous wave of polls (August 2020), attitude has improved.
88% of Ukrainians and 80% of Russians support Ukraine’s independence from Russia, and 7% of Ukrainians and 17% of Russians want Ukraine to join Russia. The number of Ukrainians who want closed borders with Russia is 39% (and Russians - 23%), and the number of Ukrainians who want independent relations, but without borders and customs, is 49% (and Russians – 57%).
* * *
During the research, Ukrainians were still asked a question "How do you feel about Russia in general now?", and the Russians "How do you feel about Ukraine in general now?"
During the entire observation period (except for September 2019 and our latest data from February 2021), Ukrainians treated Russia better than Russians treated Ukraine (see Graph 1). In September 2019, Russians 'attitudes toward Ukraine were somewhat better, possibly due to expectations that the new Ukrainian government would change Ukrainians' attitudes toward Russia. After the annexation of Crimea and the start of hostilities in the Donbas, Ukrainians 'positive attitudes toward Russia fell sharply (from 90% to 30%), but after the end of active hostilities, Ukrainians' attitudes toward Russia improved somewhat again. Now, for the second time in the history of observations, Russians treat Ukraine better than Ukrainians treat Russia.
Methodological remark. This time the surveys are not completely equivalent, because in Russia the survey was conducted by face-to-face interview, and in Ukraine - by the method of telephone survey. In addition, only the last two of our surveys, September 2020 and current (February 2021), were conducted by telephone survey, and all other surveys were conducted by the method of F2F interviews. Therefore, we do not know whether we really have a decline in the positive attitude of Ukrainians to Russia or whether it is due to the transition to telephone surveys..
Graph 1. Dynamics of good attitude of the population of Ukraine to Russia and Russia to Ukraine
Dynamics of answers to question "How would you like to see Ukraine's relations with Russia?"
Graph 2. What kind of relations with Russia do want in Ukraine?*
* The line on the graph “Ukraine and Russia should be independent” is the sum of the first two columns in Table 6, ie the percentage of those who want independence with borders and customs, and those who want independence but without borders and customs (see tables below).
Comment by V. Paniotto, Director General of KIIS:
From time to time, we ask not only about the attitude towards Russia, but also separately about the attitude towards the Russians and the Russian leadership. The last such survey was in February 2019. In general, 57% of Ukrainians had a positive attitude towards Russia at that time. At the same time, 77% of Ukrainians had a positive attitude towards Russians, while the attitude towards the Russian leadership was sharply negative and only 13% of Ukrainians had a positive attitude. The situation is the same with the attitude of Russians (Russian citizens) to Ukraine, in February 2019 only 34% of Russians were positive about Ukraine, 82% of Russians were positive about Ukrainians, and only 7% of Russians - positive about the leadership of Ukraine.
Thus, both in Ukraine and in Russia the positive attitude to the state is caused, first of all, by the positive attitude to the population.
Annex 1. Formulation of questions from the questionnaire
How would you like to see Ukraine's relations with Russia? ONE RESPONSE
How do you feel about Russia in general now?
Annex 2. Composition of the regions of Ukraine
Western macroregion - Volyn, Zakarpattia, Ivano-Frankivsk, Lviv, Rivne, Ternopil, Khmelnytskyi, Chernivtsi regions;
Central macroregion – Kyiv city, Kyiv, Vinnytsia, Zhytomyr, Kirovohrad, Poltava, Sumy, Cherkasy, Chernihiv regions;
Southern macroregion - Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhzhia, Mykolaiv, Odesa, Kherson regions;
Eastern macroregion - Kharkiv, Donetsk, Luhansk region (districts controlled by Ukraine)
Annex 3. TABLES
Taable 1. How do you feel about Ukraine / Russia in general now?
Table 2. How do you feel about Russia in general now? Distribution by regions, February 2021, %
Table 3. How would you like to see Ukraine's relations with Russia?
Table 4. How would you like to see Ukraine's relations with Russia? Distribution by regions, February 2021, %