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Attitude of Ukrainians to public holidays, February and April 2021
The press release was prepared by KIIS Director General Volodymyr Paniotto
The statistical error of the sample (with a probability of 0.95 and design effect of 1.5) does not exceed: 3.3% for indicators close to 50%, 2.8% - for indicators close to 25%, 2.0% - for indicators close to 10%, 1.4% - for indicators close to 5%.
The question of which holidays are most important or favorite depends on the date of the survey. The closer to this holiday - the more often it is mentioned by respondents. Therefore, to study the dynamics, we usually ask about the holidays every year in February. We also conducted a survey in February this year, but because of Covid, not through a face-to-face interview, but through a telephone survey. A 2020 research found that there are 10% more people with higher education in a telephone survey than in a face-to-face survey, but we do not know which data are more accurate, because the census in Ukraine has not been conducted for 20 years. In addition, in a face-to-face interview, respondents look at a card with a list and choose more alternatives. The results of February 2021 were significantly different from last year, so we repeated this survey in April. Thus, we have the opportunity to determine how stable the preferences of Ukrainians are, how they depend on the date of the survey and the method of the survey. Comparisons of February and April 2021 by the same method provide information on the impact of the date, and a comparison of February 2020 and February 2021 shows the total impact of the dynamics of public opinion and the impact of the survey method.
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Because we typically measure attitudes toward holidays in February — some time away from the May holidays — the data below are mostly for February 2021 (more recent April data is used for comparison only).
Research has shown that Ukrainians generally treat holidays with love and respect; only 2% of respondents do not consider any official holidays as important or favorite.
The most popular official holidays of Ukrainians in February were such holidays (table 1) :
Table 1. Which of these holidays are most important or favorite for you? Please specify no more than 5 holidays, %
As we can see, in April 2021 the most popular religious holidays in Ukraine are Easter and Christmas (72% and 63% respectively), the least popular are Labor Day (12%) and Constitution Day of Ukraine. (14%).
Graph 1 shows what has changed in two months.
Graph 1. Which of these holidays are most important or favorite for you?,%
Comparison of February and April 2021 (impact of survey date)
Such changes are significant. The mention of Easter has increased (and this is undoubtedly due to the fact that the survey was conducted 2 weeks before the holiday), the mention of Victory Day has increased for the same reason, i.e. due to the approach of the holiday. During this time, the mention of the Independence Day of Ukraine (from 31% to 37%) and the Day of the Defender of Ukraine (from 21% to 29%) also increased significantly. This may be due to the fact that tensions with Russia increased in April due to the concentration of Russian troops on the border with Ukraine.
Graph 2 shows the dynamics of the popularity of the holidays for the year - from February 2020 to February 2021.
Graph 2. Which of these holidays are most important or favorite for you?,%
Comparison of February 2020 F2F and February 2021 CATI (impact of survey method)
As we can see, the attitude to religious holidays, the International Women's Day and Victory Day has significantly worsened, the attitude to the Independence Day of Ukraine and the Day of the Defender of Ukraine has improved only. It is possible that the attitude to religious holidays is related to the method of the survey, because in the telephone survey there are more people with higher education who are less religious. Unfortunately, due to the change in the survey method, we cannot be sure of the short-term dynamics of these processes. Let’s see the dynamics of the last 10 years (see table 2)
Table 2. Which of these holidays are most important or favorite for you
Dynamics in Ukraine as a whole from 2011 to 2021, %
The three most popular holidays of Ukrainians are Christmas, Easter and New Year (70-80%), followed by International Women's Day and Victory Day (30-40%). The attitude to the Independence Day of Ukraine has improved (from 15% to 31% in February). Then the Trinity and the Day of the Defender of Ukraine (20-30%), on the Day of the Defender of Ukraine there is a small positive dynamics, the least popular holidays - Labor Day and Constitution Day (9-12%).
There is a certain decrease in the attitude to the Victory Day, 10 years ago it was a favorite holiday for 50% of Ukrainians.
Remembrance and Reconciliation Day - May 8, or Victory Day - May 9
When to celebrate this holiday - May 8 or 9 - this year, we did not poll, but conducted such a poll in April 2020 with the “Democratic Initiatives” Foundation.
In April 2021, the “Democratic Initiatives” Foundation and the Razumkov Center repeated this survey (https://dif.org.ua/article/den-peremogi-i-yogo-mistse-v-istorichniy-pamyati-ukraintsiv-yakiy-sens-gromadyani-vkladayut-u-tsyu-datu)
A relative majority of 41% (39% was a year ago) of Ukrainians support celebrations in Ukraine on both dates: Remembrance and Reconciliation Day on May 8 and Victory Day on May 9. According to 31% (there were 32%) of citizens, it is worth celebrating only Victory Day on May 9, 9% (there were 14%) believe that it is worth celebrating only the Day of Remembrance and Reconciliation on May 8, and for another 10% (there were 9%) this question is indifferent.
Annex 1. Formulation of questions from the questionnaire
S0. On this card is a list of National Holidays of Ukraine, arranged according to the calendar. Which of these holidays are most important or favorite for you? Please specify no more than 5 holidays.
Table 1Ä. By gender, February 2021, %
Table 2Ä. By level of education, February 2021, %:
Table 3Ä. By regions, February 2021, %:
Table 4Ä. By age, February 2021, %